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Mast Cells

by Guha Krishnaswamy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2006
Genre: Medical
Pages: 176 pages
ISBN 13: 0877882487
ISBN 10: 9780877882480
Format: PDF, ePUB, MOBI, Audiobooks, Kindle

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The mast cell, long implicated in causing allergic reactions, may also be involved in many other disease processes, including cancer, heart disease, parasitic disease, atherosclerosis, asthma, and arthritis. In Mast Cells: Methods and Protocols, hands-on experts describe in detail their best techniques for the isolation, culture, and study of both activation and signaling in human mast cells. These readily reproducible methods take advantage of the latest advances in molecular biology, technology, and information science. The techniques provide a sound base of methodology for mast cell research and include methods for the identification of mast cells, the development of mast cells in vitro, the study of mast cell signaling and gene expression, and the measurement of mast cell expression of inflammatory mediators. Additional chapters cover methods for studying mast cell interactions with other cell types (endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and B cells), the roles of mast cells in host defense, and mast cell apoptosis. A survey of mast cell biology offers insight into its history and the implications for adaptive immunity. The protocols follow the successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, each offering step-by-step laboratory instructions, an introduction outlining the principles behind the technique, lists of the necessary equipment and reagents, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and highly practical, Mast Cells: Methods and Protocols provides mast cell researchers with reproducible accounts of basic and advanced molecular and cellular techniques used in studying this fascinating, multifunctional cell.
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Mast Cells
Language: en
Pages: 439
Authors: Guha Krishnaswamy, David S. Chi
Categories: Medical
Type: BOOK - Published: 2006 - Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

The mast cell, long implicated in causing allergic reactions, may also be involved in many other disease processes, including cancer, heart disease, parasitic disease, atherosclerosis, asthma, and arthritis. In Mast Cells: Methods and Protocols, hands-on experts describe in detail their best techniques for the isolation, culture, and study of both activation and signaling in human mast cells. These readily reproducible methods take advantage of the latest advances in molecular biology, technology, and information science. The techniques provide a sound base of methodology for mast cell research and include methods for the identification of mast cells, the development of mast cells in vitro, the study of mast cell signaling and gene expression, and the measurement of mast cell expression of inflammatory mediators. Additional chapters cover methods for studying mast cell interactions with other cell types (endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and B cells), the roles of mast cells in host defense, and mast cell apoptosis. A survey of mast cell biology offers insight into its history and the implications for adaptive immunity. The protocols follow the successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, each offering step-by-step laboratory instructions, an introduction outlining the principles behind the technique, lists of the necessary equipment and reagents, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and highly practical, Mast Cells: Methods and Protocols provides mast cell researchers with reproducible accounts of basic and advanced molecular and cellular techniques used in studying this fascinating, multifunctional cell.
Mast Cells, Mediators and Disease
Language: en
Pages: 288
Authors: Stephen T. Holgate
Categories: Medical
Type: BOOK - Published: 2012-12-06 - Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

In 1879 Paul Ehrlich first described the mast cell as a tissue fixed cell contain ing many granules which, when stained with basic dyes, such as toluidine blue, changed the colour spectrum of the dye in a process called meta chromasia. Since this early description, pathologists, physicians and pharmacologists have been fascinated by this cell on account of its central involvement in human allergic diseases. Approximately four decades after Ehrlich's first description of the mast cell, Prausnitz and Kiistner reported their pioneer experiment, demonstrating that the immediate skin wheal response to allergen could be passively transferred with serum. They named the antigen-specific serum factor reagin. A further four and one half decades had to pass before the connection between the mast cell and reagin could be made with the identification of reagin as an immunoglobulin E by Johansson and Ishizaka and its unique property to bind with high affinity to specific receptors on mast cells and basophils. Meanwhile in the 1920s Coca published a series of papers in which he described the clinical features of acute allergic responses and first used the term atopy. This, together with the fundamental pharmacological studies of Sir Henry Dale in identifying histamine as one mediator of the acute ana phylactic reaction, provided the second approach which eventually linked the mast cell to allergic tissue reactions. Indeed, it was Best, working in Dale's group who first showed that histamine was a chemical stored in mast cells.
Human Mast Cells
Language: en
Pages: 107
Authors: Ann M. Dvorak
Categories: Medical
Type: BOOK - Published: 2012-12-06 - Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

This book looks in detail at human mast cells. It includes a review of previous and current ultrastructural studies, whereby the latter are illustrated with numerous high-quality electron micrographs obtained from a large number of structural and functional experiments using highly purified isolated human lung mast cells. Specifically, the book provides criteria for the identification of human mast cells, discusses the unique role in mast cell function of granules and lipid bodies, describes the ultrastructural anatomy of two release reactions - i.e., anaphylactic degranulation and piecemeal degranulation - and defines the recovery, cyclical and maturational properties of human mast cells. All of these new morphological-biochemical and functional studies are correlated with the author's wide experience in the visual properties of human mast cells as seen in biopsy material obtained from a diagnostic ultrastructural pathology service.
Basophil and Mast Cell Degranulation and Recovery
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Pages: 415
Authors: Ann M. Dvorak
Categories: Medical
Type: BOOK - Published: 2013-06-29 - Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

Basophils and mast cells are similar but unique secretory cells with a well-documented role in immediate-hypersensitivity reactions. The presence of these cells in various cell mediated hypersensitivity reactions, in tissues of multiple diseases, and as a component of the host reaction to injury and repair in numerous circumstances is well known. Release of stored and newly generated mediators of inflammation from basophils and mast cells contributes to the cascade of pathogenetic events in circumstances under which these release reactions occur. Despite insights acquired through studies of these pathologic events, the role of basophils and mast cells and their secretory products in health is not known. In this book, I review much of the structural information regarding basophils and mast cells of multiple species. Ultrastructural studies of rat mast cells historically precede and quantitatively exceed similar studies of basophils and mast cells of other species. Therefore, I first review these background studies as an entity. Then I discuss the contents of two prominent organelles-granules and lipid bodies-in basophils and mast cells of several species. The ultrastructural morphology of basophils and mast cells in three species is presented in detail to establish appropriate guidelines for their recognition and to provide general rules for analysis which are appropriate for the identification of these cells in other species as well.
Mast Cells and Basophils
Language: en
Pages: 707
Authors: Gianni Marone, Lawrence M. Lichtenstein, Federica J. Galli
Categories: Medical
Type: BOOK - Published: 2000-05-25 - Publisher: Academic Press

Mast Cells and Basophils will be essential reading for immunologists, biochemists and medical researchers. Detailed chapters cover all aspects of mast cell and basophil research, from cell development, proteases, histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes, physiology and pathology to the role of these cells in health and disease. Chapters also discuss the clinical implications of histamine receptor antagonists.
Mast Cells in Allergic Diseases
Language: en
Pages: 218
Authors: Hirohisa Saito, Yoshimichi Okayama
Categories: Medical
Type: BOOK - Published: 2005-01-01 - Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers

In this book, the editors have focused on the roles of mast cells in allergic diseases and discuss the future direction of discovering drugs. Another implication of this book is to understand mast cells at the system level. System biology is a research category to understand biology at the system level by examining the structure and dynamics of cellular and organismal functions, rather than the characteristics of isolated parts of a cell or organism.
The Mast Cell in Health and Disease
Language: en
Pages: 858
Authors: Kaliner
Categories: Medical
Type: BOOK - Published: 1992-10-29 - Publisher: CRC Press

Offers coverage of practical and theoretical implications of current research into mast cell biology, emphasizing the role of the mast cell in human diseases. The text covers all aspects of the mast cell from growth and differentiation to its function in such conditions as asthma and skin disease.
TRPC Channels in Human Mast Cells
Language: en
Pages:
Authors: Claire Tree-Booker
Categories: Medical
Type: BOOK - Published: 2011 - Publisher:

Mast cells have an important role in the immune system, but they are centrally involved in the pathophysiology of asthma, along with a number of other allergic diseases including rhinitis, eczema and irritable bowel disease (Metcalfe et al., 1997; Beaven, 2009). In the allergic response they are activated by IgE binding to high affinity receptors and subsequent cross-linking by antigen. A rise in intracellular Ca2+ is required for mast cells to become activated and release mediators into the surrounding areas, which give rise to the symptoms of allergic disease (Gilfillan & Tkaczyk, 2006). Elucidating the ion channels responsible for mast cell Ca2+ entry may unveil new therapeutic targets for the treatment of asthma and other allergic diseases. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a major mechanism for mast cell Ca2+ influx and is known to involve highly Ca2+-selective Orai1 channels. TRPC channels are non-selective Ca2+ channels; TRPC1, 4 and 5 are thought to be involved in SOCE, whereas TRPC3, 6 and 7 are activated by diacylglycerol (DAG). Whilst a limited number of studies carried out in rodent mast cells suggest that TRPC channels could be important for Ca2+ entry and mediator release, their functional expression and roles in human mast cells have not been characterised. This study showed that the LAD 2 human mast cell line and primary human lung mast cells (HLMCs) express mRNA for TRPC6. TRPC6-like currents were demonstrated for the first time in HLMCs, in response to direct activation by the DAG analogue OAG, and downstream of Gq protein-coupled P2Y1 receptor stimulation by ADP. This study also revealed for the first time that TRPC1 channels are expressed in both LAD 2 cells and HLMCs, and that both TRPC1 and Orai1 channels are likely to be involved in SOCE. Importantly, this study also indicated that TRPC1 channels could be involved in Ca2+ entry and mediator release downstream of IgE receptor activation. TRPC channels could thus contribute to Ca2+ entry required for mast cell activation in allergic disease, and could represent a therapeutic target for the modulation of diseases such as asthma.
Deciphering new molecular mechanisms of mast cell activation
Language: en
Pages:
Authors: Ulrich Blank, Marc Benhamou
Categories: Medical
Type: BOOK - Published: 2014-03-20 - Publisher: Frontiers E-books

Mast cells are tissue-localized cells that play an important role in immunity and inflammation. Following an offensive event they act as cellular sensors that via the activation of cell surface receptors launch a cellular response culminating in the release of a whole set of inflammatory mediators and products. This response is initially destined to restore tissue homeostasis, but in case of chronic injury or deregulation also promotes pathology. To further understand the action of mast cells in their environmental context it is necessary to decipher the molecular mechanisms of their activation as well as the ensuing cellular responses. This will allow identification of new strategies to promote their beneficial actions or, at the contrary, to interfere with their pathological consequences. While in the past many studies have focused on responses engaged by high affinity IgE receptor because of its implication in the allergic response, it has become clear that mast cells can be activated by multiple types of receptors initiating an intense molecular crosstalk between receptors and signaling pathways that can either synergize, antagonize and in some cases produce new types of responses. Mast cells can indeed react with an astounding diverse array of cellular responses that sometimes are engaged selectively. This Research Topic will focus on selected articles that shed some new light on the molecular mechanisms of mast cell activation, the possible crosstalk between signaling pathways and the ensuing cellular responses that allow mast cells to act as cellular sensors in tissues.
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Language: en
Pages: 352
Authors: Caughey
Categories: Medical
Type: BOOK - Published: 1995-05-11 - Publisher: CRC Press

This state-of-the-art reference provides timely and clinically and experimentally useful information on the major proteins of mast cell secretory granules that are released into the lung, skin, gut, eye, and other tissues under the influence of diverse stimuli-including cytokines, growth factors, neuropeptides, and allergen-bound immunoglobulin E. Demonstrates the important roles proteases play in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis as well as in the damaging events linked with allergy and other varieties of inflammation!
Mast Cells and Basophils
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Pages: 274
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Categories: Medical
Type: BOOK - Published: 2006-01-04 - Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

The book presents recent advances relating to the factors and mechanisms that regulate the growth, differentiation and function of mast cells and basophils; discussion of new technologies used to study these cells, and integration of the basic scientific findings in the context of therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of diseases such as allergic inflammation and autoimmune disease which are mediated, in part, by these granulocytes.
Mast Cell Biology
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Pages: 288
Authors: Alasdair M. Gilfillan, Dean Metcalfe
Categories: Medical
Type: BOOK - Published: 2011-06-28 - Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

The editors of Mast Cell Biology, Drs. Gilfillan and Metcalfe, have enlisted an outstanding group of investigators to discuss the emerging concepts in mast cell biology with respect to development of these cells, their homeostasis, their activation, as well as their roles in maintaining health on the one hand and on the other, their participation in disease.